May I add my two pence to this interesting discussion of yours in a collaborative spirit?
One aspect of our mind is measuring, comparing. Is that bad in absolute? No, it’s a necessity in daily life and all science is based on measuring. Measuring becomes destructive when I apply it to the psychological realm, that is the field of ourselves and our relationships. I’m more intelligent than you. I’m poor and you are rich, that’s not fair!
Now your statement about time: why you ask “what was time before we conditioned ourselves and each other to measure the ongoing process of life”? This is a metaphysical question, i. e. an attempt to define and explain cosmos with words, with intellect. It’s useless. Metaphysics was created in ancient Greece and was the forefather of science. It didn’t help man to live better or to understand sufficiently the world, so it was put aside when science came up.
The speech of K. about chronological and psychological time is neither metaphysical or scientific, it’s just common sense without any claim to be exact. We can also say that it’s a self-evident assertion and it’s immensely useful to understand ourselves. There is time: today, tomorrow, yesterday. We don’t know what it is but it is there and - what’s more important - we can use it. Only a philosopher with his mind in a cloud or in a metaphysical world would deny its existence and its usefulness. We can speculate a world without time, but that is just speculation.
But the point – the main point and the most important one – K. wanted to stress is that there is no problem with chronological time while all our problems comes with psychological time: I’ll get richer, I’ve been hurt, I hope to get a job. Now once you understand this difference, what is the point in discussing whether chronological time is real or not?